- Error Handling
Designing systems so that errors are handled in such a way that processes, automation and user interfaces remain functional. Historically, systems were often designed to immediately halt upon finding any type of error. This is an unacceptable business risk in many scenarios. Well-designed modern systems are designed to work around errors as far as possible.
- Error Tolerant Design
User interfaces that prevent human error from having serious consequences. For example, a car may be designed not to let you put it into reverse when you’re moving forward.
- Graceful Degradation
Machines and systems that are designed to keep working with limited functionality when they are damaged or lose resources such as an internet connection. Important to the safety of equipment such as aircraft.
Infrastructure such as computing, network and communication equipment may be used to reduce business risks. For example, equipment that is designed to handle security threats such as denial of service attacks.
- Measure & Reduce
The first step in risk mitigation is typically to find a way to measure a risk. Once a framework for measuring risks is in place, business strategies and day to day operations can work to reduce risk. For example, measurements of financial risk such as value at risk can be used to make investment choices that reduce risk.
- Mistake Proofing
Designing systems, equipment, processes and procedures to reduce risks associated with human error. For example, aircraft maintenance tools may be kept in special cases that make it obvious if a tool is missing. Each maintenance typically involves a check to see that all tools are accounted for to prevent a forgotten tool from damaging an engine on takeoff.
- Performance Management
Setting risk reduction goals as part of performance management.